New Content for the Third Edition


This new edition contains many hundreds of new citations to reflect the advances in the field that have occurred since the previous edition went to press. One of the major sources of change was the publication of DSM-5 in May, 2013. The discussion of movement disorders, neurocognitive disorders, and psychological disorders has been updated to match changes made by DSM-5 in terminology and organization.


Illustrations have also been updated to reflect the new content. Because space is so precious, illustrations are viewed as “teachable moments” that expand on or further explain the narrative rather than redundant, “pretty” placeholders. We are especially proud of our medical quality anatomical illustrations, which have been the source of much positive feedback through the previous editions.


           Space does not permit me to provide an exhaustive list of the updates, but here are some of the chapter-by-chapter highlights:


Chapter 1      What Is Behavioral Neuroscience?

 

Updated definitions of neuroscience and behavioral neuroscience

Updated methods section including a description of optogenetics.

Added description of the analysis of epigenetics.

 

Chapter 2         Functional Neuroanatomy and the Evolution of the Nervous System

 

Clarified use of anatomical directional terms

Expanded discussion of embryological divisions of the brain, including organizational table.

Expanded discussion of the parts of the basal ganglia.

Added section on the enteric nervous system.

Added section on the endocrine system.

 

Chapter 3       Neurophysiology: The Structure and Function of the Cells of the Nervous System

 

Re-ordered discussion of glia and neurons to improve transition from discussions of neural structure to neural function

Introduction of concept of axonal varicosities.

Introduction of distinction between directed and nondirected synapses.

 

Chapter 4       Psychopharmacology

 

Clarified use of neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone terms in conjunction with directed and nondirected synapses

Updated discussion of gasotransmitters

Added discussion of histamine to the indoleamines

Expanded discussion of dopaminergic pathways to include the mesostriatal and mesolimbocortical pathways and pathways originating in the hypothalamus

Expanded discussion of receptor subtypes

Added discussion of glycine

Updated discussion of mode of action of methamphetamine and MDMA

 

Chapter 5       Genetics and the Development of the Human Brain

 

Added discussion of copy-number variations (CNVs)

Added section on epigenetics, including discussion of histone modification and DNA methylation

Updated discussion of role of astrocytes in synapse formation and pruning

Expanded discussion of enriched environments

Expanded section on the brain in adolescence and adulthood, emphasizing healthy brain aging

 

Chapter 6       Vision

 

Added general section introducing concepts of sensation, perception, transduction, and top-down/bottom-up processing

Distinguished between diffuse and midget bipolar cells in the retina

Added section on cortical mapping of the visual field

Added description of akinetopsia

 

Chapter 7       Nonvisual Sensation and Perception

 

Updated and expanded discussion of loudness perception

Updated section on cochlear implants

Expansion and clarification of the gate theory of pain

Expanded discussion of the chemical senses

 

Chapter 8       Movement

 

Added subtypes of muscle spindle fibers and their relationships with Ia and grou II sensory fibers

Updated section on planning of movement

Updated discussion of mirror systems

Updated discussion of the causes and treatments for movement disorders, and in particular Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease

 

Chapter 9       Homeostasis and Motivation

 

Increased coverage of hyperthermia related to MDMA and serotonin syndrome

Expanded explanation of the POA and temperature regulation

Updated information about why we stop drinking

Updated discussion of obesity

Updated discussion of disordered eating to be consistent with DSM-5, including section on new binge-eating disorder

 

Chapter 10     Sexual Behavior

 

Updated discussion of sex chromosome variations, including mosaic karyotypes

Expanded discussion of intersex and gender dysphoria

Increased emphasis on organizing and activating roles of sex hormones in development

Updated discussion of biomarkers for prenatal hormone environment

Updated discussion of sexual dimorphism in the brain

Expanded section on gender differences in behavior and cognition

Added section on gender identity and transsexuality

Expanded discussion on sexual orientation

Updated section on male contraception

Updated section on attraction, romantic love, and sexual desire

Updated section on sexual dysfunction and its treatment

 

Chapter 11     Biorhythms

 

Expanded discussion of the effects of artificial lighting on circadian rhythms

Added discussion of gamma band activity

Added discussion of default mode network (DMN) and its relationship to levels of consciousness

Updated section on sleep-wake disorders to conform to DSM-5

 

Chapter 12     Learning and Memory

 

Re-organized chapter material into sections on learning at the synapse and learning involving brain structures and circuits

Updated information about short-term and long-term learning at the synapse

Added information on operant conditioning in Aplysia

Added information about extinction learning

Expanded and updated section on long-term potentiation (LTP)

Expanded and updated section on the biochemistry of memory

Updated sections on the effects of stress and healthy aging on memory

 

Chapter 13     Hemispheric Asymmetry, Language, and Intelligence

 

Updated discussion of lateralization to include lateralization “hubs”

Expanded discussion of the advantages and development of lateralization

Added section on lateralization, psychological disorders, and disease

Updated and expanded discussion of gesture and language

Updated and expanded discussion of multilingualism, including its contribution to cognitive reserve

Added discussion of dual stream models of language

Updated discussion of epigenetics and intelligence

 

Chapter 14     Emotion, Reward, Aggresssion, and Stress

 

Expanded discussion of somatic markers

Updated discussion of roles of amygdala, insula, basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex to emotional processing

Updated and expanded discussion of mesostriatal pathway, reward, and addiction

Expanded and updated discussion of epigenetics and aggression

Distinguished between roles of the sympathetic adrenal-medullary (SAM) system and the HPA axis in responses to stress

Added section on epigenetics and stress

Updated section on stress and health

 

Chapter 15     Neuropsychology

 

Reorganized chapter to begin with a discussion of neuropsychology

Updated and expanded section on neuropsychological assessment

Updated terms such as neurocognitive disorder to maintain consistency with DSM-5

Updated and greatly expanded coverage of Alzheimer’s disease, which was moved her from Chapter 5 in 2e

Expanded coverage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) to differentiate between combat-related blast injuries and other types of TBI

Updated discussion of treatment of TBI

Added section on substance/medication-induced neurocognitive disorder

Updated section on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

Updated and expanded section on recovery and treatment of neurocognitive disorders, including discussion of cognitive reserve and “Wii-hab”

 

Chapter 16     Psychopathology

 

Updated the ordering of topics, new terminology, and new diagnostic criteria for all disorders to maintain consistency with DSM-5

Discussed new research identifying common susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit disorder, and major depressive disorder

Updated discussion of the prevalence, causes, and brain correlates of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Updated discussion of genetic, biochemical, and brain correlates of schizophrenia

Introduced the concept of oxidative stress as a correlate of bipolar disorder

Expanded the discussion of biochemical correlates of major depressive disorder

Expanded and updated section on posstraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the roles of the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex in particular

Discussed the relationship between psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) within the context of DSM-5

Expanded discussion of biological correlates and treatment of APD